The Encode Project (2003) and Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, began en 2003 to study the genome of Homo sapiens, mapping each functional part of the human genome (20.000 genes), 32 research groups isolating the RNA sequence and identifying the DNA corresponding.
Called «junk DNA», the DNA of the gene giving no insturctions (also called «DNA dark» matter).
In the evolutionary realm is seen as the genome of higher EUKARYOTES an man are areas of duplicated sequences and introns and not due to an increased number of genes.
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But recently has been news that this DNA serves on the control cells, organs and tissues.
On September 5, 2012, have been published in Nature, Genome Research and Genome Biology, researchers from Harvard, MIT and other universities, grouped at the Broad Institute, made a map of «junk DNA», genes that perform activity: SWITCHES that idicate when a gene is active or inactive, regulating diseases like DIABETES.
The Encode Project also tells us that DNA regions which are remote if the ball DNA unwinds, are close interacting with eachother, chaging the traditional dimensional vision by the three-dimensional.